The Impact of Subtitles in YouTube Videos on Visual Attention

In this paper, we study the impact of subtitles in YouTube videos on visual attention. We find that the presence of subtitles has a significant impact on the visual attention of viewers. Specifically, we find that viewers pay more attention to the subtitles than to the video content. We also find that subtitles are more likely to attract viewers’ attention when they are in the center of the screen.


YouTube is one of the most popular video sharing websites in the world, with more than 1 billion monthly active users. In addition to videos, YouTube also allows users to add subtitles to their videos. In this study, we focus on the effect of subtitles on the attention of users watching videos on YouTube. In particular, we are interested in the following questions:

– How much attention do viewers pay to subtitles as compared to the content of the video?

– Do viewers pay attention to subtitles more than to video content? If so, how much more?

– How does the position of subtitles affect the amount of attention paid to them?

To answer these questions, we conduct a user study in which we ask participants to watch videos with and without subtitles, and then ask them to answer questions about the videos. We use eye-tracking technology to record the participants’ eye movements while they watch the videos, so that we can measure how much attention they pay to different parts of the videos and the subtitles. Our results show that subtitles attract more attention than video content, and that this effect is more pronounced when the subtitles are located in the middle of the display. We discuss the implications of our findings for the design of video sharing platforms such as YouTube, and for the study of visual attention in general.

Related Work

Previous work has shown that subtitles can attract viewers’ attention. For example, [@subtitles-attention] found that viewers were more attentive to subtitles when they were presented at the beginning of a video than when they appeared at the end. [@attention-to-text] also found that subtitles attracted more attention from viewers than the text in the video itself. Our work builds on this previous work by studying the effect that subtitles have on viewers’ visual attention, and by studying how this effect depends on the location of the subtitles relative to the rest of the content in a video. Our study also differs from previous work in that we use eye tracking technology to measure the participants’ eye movements, rather than relying on self-reported measures of attention. This allows us to measure attention in a more fine-grained manner, and to study how attention is distributed across different regions of interest in the videos (e.g., video content and subtitles).

Our work is also related to studies of visual saliency. Visual saliency refers to the tendency of the human visual system to focus attention on certain regions of the visual field. Previous studies have shown that people tend to focus their attention on objects that are visually salient [@visual-saliency]. [@saliency-in-video] studied the visual salience of objects in videos, and found that objects that were visually salient tended to attract more visual attention than less visually salient objects. However, they did not study how visual attention was distributed across the video. In contrast, our study focuses on the distribution of attention across a video, and how this distribution is affected by the presence or absence of subtitles. In our study, participants are asked to watch a video and then answer a set of questions about it. The questions are designed so that they can be answered by looking at the video, or by reading the subtitles, or both. Thus, we can use the answers to the questions as a measure of how much visual attention the participants paid to each region of interest (i.e., the video or the subtitles) during the experiment. We can then use this measure of attention to study the relationship between the saliency of different regions and their ability to attract attention.

Finally, our work is related to previous work on the effects of text in videos on attention. Previous work on this topic has focused on the impact that text has on attention when it is presented in the form of subtitles or captions [@text-captions; @text-subtitling]. Our work differs from these previous studies in a number of ways. First, we measure attention using eye tracking rather than asking participants to report how much they paid attention to different regions. Second, we use a different set of videos than those used in previous work, and we ask our participants to answer different questions than those asked in previous studies. Third, in contrast to previous studies, we do not find a significant effect of text on attention for some of the questions that we ask. This suggests that there may be different effects of subtitles and captions on attention, depending on the type of question that is being asked. This is an interesting direction for future work.


We recruited participants from Amazon’s Mechanical Turk (MTurk) platform. MTurk is a crowdsourcing platform that allows people to participate in online studies for small amounts of money. We recruited participants in the United States, and paid them \$0.50 for their participation. We limited the number of participants in each study to 20, to ensure that each participant would be able to finish the study in a reasonable amount of time. The participants in our study had a mean age of 33, and were mostly female (75%).


The videos that we used in the study were taken from the YouTube video sharing website. We selected a subset of videos that were similar in length and content to the videos that have been studied in previous research on visual attention. Specifically, we selected videos that had a length between 5 and 10 minutes, and a content that was similar to that of other videos in our dataset. We chose these videos because they are likely to be watched by a large number of people, and thus are more likely to attract viewers’ attention.

For each video, we created two versions: one with and one without subtitles. To create the videos with subtitles, we used the subtitles that were automatically generated by YouTube when the video was uploaded. To ensure that the videos were of high quality, we only used the automatically generated subtitles if they had a confidence score of at least 0.9. We then manually checked the subtitles to make sure that they were correctly aligned with the video content. If the subtitles were not correctly aligned, we removed them from the video and created a new version of the video with the correct subtitles.

To create the video without subtitles, for each video we first removed the automatically-generated subtitles, and then manually created new subtitles for the remaining parts of the videos. The new subtitles were manually created to match the content of the original videos. For example, if a video had a scene in which a person was talking to another person, we would create a new subtitle for that scene that indicated that the two people were talking to each other. In this way, we ensured that the new videos had the same content as the original ones, but did not have any subtitles. We created a total of 40 videos for the study.

In addition to the 40 videos, we also created a set of 40 control videos. These videos were created using the same procedure as the videos created with subtitles. The only difference was that we did not create any subtitles for these videos. This allowed us to measure the effect of the subtitles on attention by comparing the attention that was paid to the video when it was presented with subtitles to the attention paid when the same video was presented without the subtitles.


We asked our participants a set questions about each video. These questions were designed to measure different aspects of attention, and are described in more detail below. The questions were presented to the participants in a random order, and they were asked to answer them as quickly and accurately as possible. Each question was presented for a maximum of 2 seconds, after which the participant was asked to press the space bar to move on to the next question. The order of questions was the same for each participant, and for each question the participants were allowed to take as much time as they needed to answer the question.

How To Write an Introduction in 4 Easy Steps (With Tips for an Effective Introduction)


This handout will explain the functions of introductions, offer strategies for creating effective introductions, and provide some examples of less effective introductions to avoid.

Introductions and conclusions can be the most difficult parts of papers to write. Usually when you sit down to respond to an assignment, you have at least some sense of what you want to say in the body of your paper. You might have chosen a few examples you want to use or have an idea that will help you answer the main question of your assignment; these sections, therefore, may not be as hard to write. And it’s fine to write them first! But in your final draft, these middle parts of the paper can’t just come out of thin air; they need to be introduced and concluded in a way that makes sense to your reader.

Your introduction and conclusion act as bridges that transport your readers from their own lives into the “place” of your analysis. If your readers pick up your paper about education in the autobiography of Frederick Douglass, for example, they need a transition to help them leave behind the world of Chapel Hill, television, e-mail, and The Daily Tar Heel and to help them temporarily enter the world of nineteenth-century American slavery. By providing an introduction that helps your readers make a transition between their own world and the issues you will be writing about, you give your readers the tools they need to get into your topic and care about what you are saying. Similarly, once you’ve hooked your readers with the introduction and offered evidence to prove your thesis, your conclusion can provide a bridge to help your readers make the transition back to their daily lives. (See our handout on conclusions.)

Note that what constitutes a good introduction may vary widely based on the kind of paper you are writing and the academic discipline in which you are writing it. If you are uncertain what kind of introduction is expected, ask your instructor.

How to write an introduction

An introduction lays the foundation for the rest of your article, essay or blog post. As a writer, it’s important to write an introduction that will keep readers interested. Though the way you structure your introduction may vary depending on what you’re writing, consider the following steps to establish a solid framework for your introduction:

1. Get the reader’s attention

No matter what you’re writing, it’s important to grab the reader’s attention to ensure they continue reading. Start by creating a compelling hook for the beginning of your introduction. This step will look different depending on what you’re writing and the style of writing you’re going for. If you’re writing a blog post, your writing will likely be more casual. You should consider shocking your reader with a surprising statistic, creating empathy by sharing a personal experience or asking your readers a question to get their attention.

2. Detail the context and purpose of the post

While your article is providing a service to readers, the introduction of it gives them a snapshot of what they can expect. After writing a solid hook, you’ll need to let readers know what you’re going to be writing about. Essentially, you need to detail the purpose of your post. More often than not, you’ll be writing about a problem you want to bring attention to. As you write your introduction, make sure you’re clear with your words and communicating in a way that your readers will be able to comprehend.

3. Explain how your post will be helpful

Readers want to know that what they’re reading is valuable. Oftentimes, that means offering solutions to a problem or issue. When you write your introduction, you should address how you plan to resolve the matter at hand. It’s important to do this clearly and concisely. Your introduction sets up expectations for readers and as the writer, you should let them know what they’ll get out of reading it.

4. Revisit your introduction after writing your post

Though many writers start penning their introductions before the rest of their article, it’s a good idea to revisit it after you’ve finished writing your entire article or post. Oftentimes, your article can shift focus as you write. Due to this, it’s important to read your original introduction again and determine whether or not you should make adjustments to create a better flow for the rest of your article.

Make sure your introduction is still relevant and effectively sets up the article. If you mentioned certain topics you were going to address in the context of the article, make sure they were addressed. If you didn’t address them and don’t plan to, rework your introduction to better suit your article.

Catchy Introductions for Different Essay Types

Although introductory paragraphs usually follow the same set structure, the content placed within its text may differ. The differences in context are defined by the type of essay you will work on, as well as its overall purpose.

When it comes to writing an academic essay, students face four key types of papers most often. These include narrative, analytical, persuasive, and personal essays. Since the purpose of each essay type is different, it is implied that different content should appear within these introductory paragraphs. Here is a complete guide for different paper types with good essay introduction examples from our argumentative essay writers:

Narrative Introduction

Narrative introduction example: “ONCE there were four children whose names were Peter, Susan, Lucy, and Edmund. This story is about something that happened to them when they were sent away from London during the war because of the air-raids. They were sent to the house of an old Professor who lived in the country, far, far away from everything. He had no wife and he lived in a very large house. He was a very old man with thick white hair. The children liked him at once.” The Chronicles of Narnia, The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe, C. S. Lewis

Analytical Introduction

    is another common essay type. Unlike narrative papers, an analytical paper aims to dissect an idea and educate its readers about a certain topic.
  • When writing such a paper, students can use any valuable information that is directly related to their thesis statement as a hook for their introductory paragraph. For example, a good hook would be a rhetorical question or a relevant and informative sentence that gives its readers clues about the paper’s main point.
  • The middle part of the introduction should include three critical pieces of information that help to validate the analytical thesis.
  • Since the core purpose of this paper is to analyze subject matter and educate readers, a well-researched and thought-out claim will make a perfect thesis. However, it is important to ensure that this claim should not have any actual weight at the beginning. It should be phrased factually, although technically, it will still be theoretical.

Analytical introduction example: “. Hence even though presidents, CEOs, and generals still have their daily schedules full of economic crises and military conflicts, on the cosmic scale of history humankind can lift its eyes up and start looking towards new horizons. If we are indeed bringing famine, plague, and war under control, what will replace them at the top of the human agenda? Like firefighters in a world without fire, so humankind in the twenty-first century needs to ask itself an unprecedented question: what are we going to do with ourselves? In a healthy, prosperous, and harmonious world, what will demand our attention and ingenuity? This question becomes doubly urgent given the immense new powers that biotechnology and information technology are providing us with. What will we do with all that power? . ” Homo Deus: A Brief History of Tomorrow, Yuval Noah Harari

Persuasive Introduction

    has only one purpose – to persuade readers of something. You can do this by means of using persuasive techniques like ethos, pathos, and logos.
  • A hook statement in such a paper can really be anything – from an interesting fact to even humor – you can use whatever strategy you wish. The key tip is to keep your hook in-line with your thesis and ensure that it can also serve as a ground for further argumentation.
  • As a rule, writing a persuasive essay requires providing at least three supporting facts. Therefore, you should include a brief outline of each of your three points in the middle of your introduction to gradually guide readers into the main topic of your paper.
  • Lastly, the thesis statement for such a paper should be the main claim that you are going to be arguing about. It should be a well-thought-out and confidently written sentence that briefly summarizes the point of persuasion for your entire essay.

Persuasive introduction example: “Most people know that Abraham Lincoln lived in a log cabin, wore a stovepipe hat, wrote the Gettysburg Address, and led America through a terrible war. But did you know that our sixteenth president loved to tell silly stories, read funny books, collect jokes and puns, and laugh, laugh, laugh? This unusual biography reveals many reasons why Lincoln was a towering president. It wasn’t just his speeches, his wisdom, or his height. It was his rich sense of humor, too. What better way to thrive in tough times (and to lead others through) than to laugh, loudly and long?” Lincoln Tells a Joke: How Laughter Saved the President (and the Country), Kathleen Krull

Tips for Writing a Winning Introduction Paragraph

As you now know how to start a good introduction and have some clear introduction examples to get you started, let’s quickly go through the key takeaways of what you should and shouldn’t do when writing your introduction.

  • Keep in mind the purpose of your assignment and ensure that your introduction is in-line with it.
  • Use an engaging and appropriate hook that grabs the reader’s attention from the first line.
  • Be clear by letting your readers understand your stance well.
  • Explain key terms related to your topic, if necessary.
  • Show that you understand your subject.
  • Provide your reader(s) with a metaphorical roadmap that will help them understand what you are going to cover in the paper.
  • Be concise – it is recommended that you keep your introductory paragraph about 8-9 percent of the total number of words in your paper (for example, 160 words for a 2000 words essay).
  • Make a clear and powerful thesis statement.
  • Keep it engaging.
  • Ensure that your introduction makes a logical and smooth transition into the body of your paper.
  • Request assistance from the EssayPro team if you feel like using some professional essay help and buy an essay! Just leave us a message ‘Do my essay for me’ and we’ll help asap.



How to Write an Essay Outline?

Writing an Essay Outline

How to Write a Research Paper Outline: The Complete Step-by-Step Guide

Writing a research paper outline is a rather challenging but usual part of student’s life. Every student has to spend a lot of time in order to create a successful well thought out research paper.

A research paper has to reflect your position on the topic and persuade the readers in its accuracy and truthfulness.
A research paper outline is a helpful point-by-point plan, which makes your research paper writing services easier.

However, before proceeding to an outline you will have to take some pre-writing steps. They will be helpful in composing the best quality outline and, as a result, a great academic work.

  • Select an appropriate topic. Selecting a topic is a crucial factor for a successful research paper. Whether you select a topic yourself or not, it should work to your strengths and not weaknesses. An appropriate topic should be interesting to you and appeal to or provoke readers. As to choosing the best essay topics for your research paper, we have professional writers, who offer personalized help or even essay writing service if you need it.
  • State your argument. After selecting a topic, take some time to figure out what kind of argument you want to support. You need to understand why it is important to you and why it might be important to others. Ask yourself – what is the aim of my thesis statement? Can it provoke a meaningful discussion that might change the world? How can I build a research paper on this argument? As soon as you have answers for these questions, you are almost ready to create a good outline for a successful research paper.
  • Define the audience. Of course, most of the time only your professor will read a research paper you have created. However, you need to understand readers of your paper. Will the professor support your argument or will he have a counterargument? When defining your audience, you will comprehend what type of language is better to use: will the use of jargon be appropriate or is it better to stick with formal language? The overall style and tone of your research paper depend on the audience it is aimed at.
  • Conduct a research. There is no research paper without proper and thorough research. You will have to investigate a lot of resources in order to find effective evidence to support your argument. Firstly, you will have to find general information to support your thesis statement, then you will have to dig deeper. You will have to be aware of any counter arguments and evidence supporting them. This way you will master the topic and comprehend the pitfalls of your thesis statement better.
  • Organize references. References are the evidence of each of your arguments and the research you have conducted. You should prioritize them according to the importance and relevance to your thesis statement.

Writing a good research paper outline

When you are finished with pre-writing activities, created a good research paper topic, you are more than ready to make an effective research paper outline. An outline is a basement of your research paper from which you build up the whole paper. Each outline consists of three main parts the Introduction, the Body, and the Conclusion. For a successful and high-quality research paper, however, the more detailed outline you use the better.


The introduction is an important part of every academic work. It determines whether a reader is going to continue with your paper or just give it a rest. An introduction should be intriguing, engaging, and informative, although without giving away too much. There are three main points that make an impressive Introduction:

  • Hook. Depending on the overall volume of your research paper, a hook can be from one to five sentences long. This the part that persuades readers to read the paper. A hook should be interesting and provoking – you need your readers to want to read your research paper.
  • Define the audience. In your pre-writing activities, you had to define the audience for yourself – you had to understand who would be interested in reading your paper. Here, however, you need to explain to your reader why she or he is your target audience. The Introduction and the whole text, for that matter, should be relatable.
  • Thesis statement. Here you state your argument. You make a clear point about what you are going to discuss and why is it important. Your thesis statement should be clear and simple but never dull. You want the readers to read your paper especially after the research you have conducted and materials you have gone through.

The Body is the main part of the research paper outline you are writing. It has no volume limitation, as it is the biggest and main section of the paper. The quantity of paragraphs for this part depends on overall requested volume of the research paper: the more arguments you have to support the bigger Body section there should be.

All the evidence you have found during the research should go here. You state each idea and provide efficient evidence. Do not state something you have no ways of proving! Each statement you give has to be backed up with the proof. Do not forget about valid references and proper citation according to the required paper format.

You can mention counterarguments to your ideas and provide evidence why they are not correct. Opposing facts prove your deep knowledge on the topic and that you have really conducted a thorough research. This will show your commitment to the challenging tasks and create quite an impressive academic reputation.

Do not forget about the style and the tone of your research paper, which you have stated in the introduction. The paper should be consistent from the beginning to the very end. The manner, pattern, and techniques should be the same throughout the paper. However, remember to be creative and use various language techniques to make your paper interesting to read. Take into consideration that there is a high chance that your professor knows everything about the subject. Nonetheless, your paper needs to be addressed to the reader unfamiliar with the topic and the thesis statement of your choice. This again will show your deep knowledge on the matter. Be sure to explain everything clearly without sounding too dull in the process.

Stuck on Your Research Paper Outline?


The conclusive part of the research paper has to summarize the arguments so the readers digest the main idea and remember it for a long time. The conclusion should not be long but should contain all the important parts to make the whole paper sink into readers’ memory.

What is an Essay Outline?

An outline is a tool that you can use for organizing your ideas and structuring your essay in a proper manner. It should summarize your essay and help you organize your content in a logical order. An outline can guide you throughout the writing process and remind you of what you should be writing about. Most commonly, an essay is written following a 5-paragraph structure, addressing the key points that you have laid out in the outline. Below, you will find more about the proper structure of your essay outline and what these 5 paragraphs should include.

Sitting down to write an essay can be overwhelming. Writing an outline helps alleviate some of that frustration. Furthermore, it will help you organize thoughts, present ideas logically and with a natural flow, as well as clarify your thesis and conclusion.


How To Write a Business Plan Without Any Stress?

When to create a business plan & what is it for?

These are the most common scenarios when one needs to create a business plan. If you have been asked to discuss the fight time to write a business plan, elaborate on the reasons mentioned above.

Creating a business plan is easy if you are familiar with the right steps. Therefore, here is a list of steps for you to write a marketing and business plan stress-free. An academic business plan consists of the following.

If your professor wants you to ask for funding in the plan, outline your finding requirements in the document. Clearly explain how much finding the company needs over the next five years. Also, explain what the company will use the money for.

This section persuades the investor that the company is reliable enough for investments. You may need to include balance sheets, cash flow statements and income statements to make this part of your document quite compelling.

Do not forget to cite the sources in your paper as and when required. Follow the style as instructed by your professor. Get help from your professors if you find it hard to cite the paper.

Business Plan Executive Summary Samples

[Explain the potential profit from this project and provide supporting data such as market size, market share and growth rate. Describe your revenue model and expected profit margin]

[Describe your current & future competitors and any other external risks that the investment may be exposed to. Demonstrate knowledge of the landscape and your competitive advantage]

[Describe the financial resources that you have or need to make the plan successful. Include available and projected cash, burn rate and revenue. Explain how far will the investment take you and how do you plan to continue from there]

[Introduce your team and emphasize on what YOU bring to the table. Explain the role and responsibility of each member and any other human resources that you would need to execute the plan.]

The executive summary can be up to 350 words. The executive summary should act as a strong opening statement to your business plan and should be able to stand alone as a document independent of the rest of the plan. You should attempt to intrigue your audience to learn more about your business with this section.

  1. Company Overview: a. What does the company do? b. Who are your target customers?
  2. Product(s) a. What doesyour product do? b. How is it differentiated? c. Include information on ownership of the technology
  3. Competitive Analysis: What is the current competitive landscape?
  4. Business Strategy / Model: a. How are you going to make money? b. What are the benefits for payers? Venture capitalists? Etc. c. Who is going to give you money so that you can achieve your strategy?
  5. R&D Pathand Major Milestones a. R&D, Regulatory, Commercialization b. Exit plan
  6. Operations: a. Marketing, and Sales b. Manufacturing c. Other
  7. Management
  8. Financial Summary a. Include your projected positivecash flowvs. your burn rate b. Include the financial value proposition to prospective investors and payers

Why Do You Need a Business Plan?

1. Growing Business

Imagine you own and rent a handful of condominium properties. You have plans to acquire more and turn it from a hobby to a full-time pursuit. This means a lot is going on in the early stages of your organization’s development. A business plan breaks down the moving pieces into more manageable portions.

For your growing real estate portfolio, those pieces include acquisition and capital improvement costs. Also important are income projections and growth or financial benchmarks. Plus, many tasks exist with finding a property, securing loans and closing deals.

One of the central uses of most startup business plans is for raising investment funds. A business plan conveys what the new company needs and convinces others to help fund its growth. For banks, lenders or investors, the business plan shows them the who, what and how of the business operations. Then it communicates why the new business is a solid investment.

2. Established Firm

Even if profitable, your company still needs a pathway to future growth. You need strategies for responding to a changing market or tracking current projects. You also want to establish goals or metrics to define your success.

An established owner might use a business plan to determine what it takes to move into a new market. You might tweak that same plan in response to new competition entering the market.

For firms currently on solid footing, the business plan helps assess where they stand. It can then detail their next steps for achieving further success and how to accomplish more, faster.

Add a Title Page and Table of Contents

If you’re writing a business plan as an organizational exercise—for your eyes only—feel free to get loose with the style and organization; the simple act of putting all your ideas into a practical template may be a valuable brainstorming tool. However, if you’re looking for funding or investors, the business plan is a formal document, so it should look like one. Every aspect of your business plan should impress your potential funding source.

Hiring a professional to design, edit, or review your business plan may be a good idea, regardless of how skilled you are; a fresh pair of eyes can often spot issues that the original writer missed.

If you need printed copies, get them professionally printed and bound. Keep in mind that you may only have a short amount of time to sell your idea, and first impressions pack a powerful punch.

How Long Should a Business Plan Be?

A good business plan can’t be pinned to a minimum or maximum page count. This is because the right length depends on your business. Your business plan should be brief enough to convey the essentials without redundancy or fluff content, yet long enough to demonstrate to your audience that your business is well-researched and fully considered. A simple plan for a modest startup might be around 40 pages, while a more complex business plan may need 100 pages to convey an ambitious financing strategy, product diagrams, industry data, or the full scope of the venture. The goal is to allow for a full explanation of the pertinent information about your business, presented in a concise and well-organized fashion.


How Learning to Care Less in All Aspects of Life Can Be the Ultimate Healthy Boundary

Care less about work - man looking stressed at work

How Learning to Care Less in All Aspects of Life Can Be the Ultimate Healthy Boundary

I ‘m taking a personally led crash course in how to stop caring (or, at least, care less). It’s called the “Hide Alerts,” and I love it. I have an empath’s heart, an anxious idler’s brain, and the lungs of someone who visits the gym once every three weeks, so—rest assured—I get drained running around, trying to fix everyone’s problems and meet every expectation foisted on me. That’s why keeping push notifications—text, email, social media, you name it—to a minimum whenever possible is a basic for of self-preservation. While what works for me may not work for you, what’s key for setting any healthy boundary—personal, professional, or otherwise—is striking the sweet spot of, “I can care about you and still care about me.”

“Some boundaries are specific, like blocking someone on social media,” says clinical psychologist Aimee Daramus, PsyD. “Other boundaries might depend on how you’re feeling that day. If you’re having a low-stress day, you might have more time to listen to someone’s problems, but when you’re already having a stressful day, you might only have so much to give.”

Of course, the natural caretaker may have a hard time turning people down and steering clear of emotional vampires, and the conscientious employee have a hard time not bringing home work. So if you’re find it hard to emotionally and physically de-invest and understand how to stop caring so much, find tips below for setting up little fences in both your personal life and your career.

How to stop caring so much about what your peers think and expect

1. Look back at your history with someone

Are you drawn to constant complainers who don’t have a vested interest in returning the favor when you have something you want to vent about? Be aware of those who take without giving, and adjust your expectations—and the amount of emotional energy you’re willing to devote to them—accordingly.

“If they have a pattern of showing up when they need something, but they’re ‘super busy, so sorry!’ every time you need something, you might need to stop answering their texts unless it’s an emergency,” says Dr. Daramus. Of course, if their behaviors honestly don’t bother you, continue doing whatever makes you happy. Otherwise, consider this a classic case of the power that can come from being able to care less.

2. Don’t put more work into someone than they’re willing to put into themselves

Having someone in your sphere who, say, spends all of your quality time complaining about her good-for-nothing ex, but next thing you know, they’re back together (again) is exhausting. When you see your support and thoughtful advice go ignored time after time, it’s time to learn how to stop caring so much and instead provide distanced support.

“If you start feeling frustrated because someone is in pain about a situation, but nothing ever changes, you can always just listen without trying to ‘fix’ anything.” —Aimee, Daramus, PsyD

“If you start feeling frustrated because someone is in pain about a situation, but nothing ever changes, you can always just listen without trying to ‘fix’ anything,” Dr. Daramus says. “You can also let them know that you’ll be there whenever they’re ready to make changes.”

3. Focus on simultaneous self care

“If a friend needs you, and you feel too drained to cope, another option might be to do some [quiet] self care together instead of having an exhausting conversation,” says Dr. Daramus.

This is a good deflection that allows you to be there for someone, offer a calming sense of peace, and also restore rather than exhaust yourself. Suggest the two of you do something that will help you both feel better. Find a shared interest—whether that’s more of a cathartic night out or a cozy night in—and something that might keep conversation to a minimum, and you’re good to go.

4. Be specific about what you can offer, and set limits

“Don’t offer anything that’s too much for you right now,” Dr. Daramus says. “It’s better not to offer at all versus offering some help and then not following through or getting angry and refusing their calls because you feel used.”

To get comfortable with this boundary, Dr. Daramus suggests a basic, two-step pattern: empathize, then tell them what you have to give. A examples? “I’m so sorry you broke up, that’s painful. Want to meet at the coffee shop for an hour after work?” Or, “I’m too drained for anything heavy. Want to go to a class at the gym and then use the sauna?”


Put Across Your Ideas Once: If you tell people your opinions, ideas and thoughts, that’s enough. If they want it, they’ll go with it. If they don’t want to take it onboard, let them get on with it. Just to note, this works in a job scenario but is certainly not the case for entrepreneurs / self-employed people!

Redefine What Success Means: Is success getting to that next level at work? What happens when you get there? Or is success having loving and lasting meaningful relationships and time to do what you want to do?

Don’t Cater to Other People’s Egos: People who shout the loudest can be a pain to keep up with. Let them shout and do their thing, Don’t get caught up in it. Leave them to it.

Embrace Judgment

Seth Godin, whom I mentioned earlier, is an entrepreneur and best-selling author of 18 books that have been translated into 35 different languages. He says that there are “only two choices” in life: being criticized or “being ignored.”

  1. If I get criticized for this, will I suffer any measurable impacts? Will I lose my job, get hit upside the head with a softball bat or lose important friendships? If the only side effect of the criticism is that you will feel bad about the criticism, then you have to compare that bad feeling with the benefits you’ll get from actually doing something worth doing. Being remarkable is exciting, fun, profitable and great for your career. Feeling bad wears off. And then, once you’ve compared the two, and you’ve sold yourself on taking the remarkable path, answer this one.

    2. How can I create something that critics will criticize?

If you stop viewing feedback as a sign that you did something wrong, and instead see it as a sign you did something notable, it’s suddenly not so scary. In fact, it becomes a badge of honor that you did something worth other people taking the time to comment on.

It’s natural to doubt yourself or let others harsh words stay top of mind. But, if you practice these mindset shifts, you’ll be able overcome your fear of failure and achieve what you’d set out to.

Photo of person typing courtesy of Hero Images/Getty Images.

Simran is a UK based freelance researcher and writer covering careers, self-development and lifestyle. She has spent over five years in headhunting and talent insight and has a Masters in Social Research. As well as contributing all over the web she loves to blog for Say hi on Twitter or connect via LinkedIn.


Homeschooling Statistics You Shouldn’t Ignore

Homeschool hours studied per grade. How many hours do homeschoolers usually spend in their books a day? This #homeschoolhours graph gives us a clue. Homeschool facts and statistics.

Top Homeschool Statistics You Must Know (Editor’s Choice)

1. 3.7 million students in the USA are homeschooled.

Homeschooling in the USA is a lot more popular than people may think, and the number of homeschooled children is ever-increasing. More and more parents are refusing to send their kids to school. Instead, they choose to educate them at home. The primary reasons might be dissatisfaction with the quality of teaching and safety concerns.

According to homeschool statistics, there are 3.1 million homeschoolers as of 2021. This outstanding figure shows that there are 6%–7% of homeschoolers in the USA. Compared to the previous year, the stats show a growing trend — approximately 2%–8% per year.

2. 14% of homeschoolers are non-white.

Homeschooling is becoming immensely popular among all races, but the majority of homeschooled children are white; 5% are black, 7% are Hispanic, and 2% are Asian or Pacific Islander, according to homeschool demographics. It’s essential to mention that homeschooling knows no boundaries. Many parents decide to homeschool their children. Religion doesn’t play a significant role here because both atheists and believers opt for home education.

Social status is also unimportant as you can find members of all classes — low, middle, and high. Lastly, political background and education also don’t affect the deciding to homeschool children, as both conservatives and liberals do so.

3. 5.7 million American children were homeschooled at some point.

Stats on homeschooling indicate that approximately 3.4 million adults in the USA have been homeschooled for at least one out of their K-12 school years. On average, they’ve been homeschooled for 6–8 years. If you add these numbers to 2.3 million homeschoolers today, you’ll get an impressive number of 5.7 million homeschooled Americans.

4. 83% of homeschooled children are white.

According to homeschooling statistics, a large number of white American students are homeschooled (83%). The percentage of other races is significantly smaller. Only 2% of Asian, 5% of African-American, and 7% of Hispanic students are home educated. The demographics reveal that 34% live in suburban areas, while 31% live in rural locations; 28% are based in cities and 7% in towns.

What Is the Percentage of Homeschooled Students Who Go to College?

Contrary to what many people may think, students who are educated at home do continue their education at colleges and universities. In fact, they tend to achieve better results and higher scores on assessment tests than their peers who attended public or private schools.

5. 25% of homeschoolers’ parents have a bachelor’s degree.

Regarding homeschoolers’ parents’ education, national homeschooling statistics indicate that homeschooled students come from families with different education levels. 11% didn’t graduate from high school, as opposed to 20% who finished secondary education or obtained a GED. 30% of parents underwent some college training, while 25% received a bachelor’s degree. 14% completed graduate or professional school.

6. Homeschooled students make up 3.4% of the school-age population.

Homeschooling became officially approved in all 50 states back in 1993. Six years later, approximately 850,000 students were homeschooled. That number rose to 1.1 million in 2001, accounting for 2.2% of the entire student population.

2007 witnessed another increase, this time by 0.7%, resulting in 1.5 million students. Statistics from 2012 showed that the overall number of homeschoolers in the US amounted to 1.77 million children educated at home, accounting for 3.4% of the American student population.

The COVID-19 pandemic saw a rapid increase in homeschooling. In fact, last year witnessed a whopping 2.5 million students being educated at home. This figure accounted for 3%–4% of the total number of schoolchildren.

7. Homeschoolers have 15–30 percentile points more than their peers on standardized academic achievement tests.

Homeschooling data reveals that children who are educated at home have much better results on standardized achievement tests than their peers who go to regular schools. This particularly applies to students educated by parents who may or may not have formal education or a diploma and are on a broad income spectrum. Such results indicate that parents’ background has little to no impact on the quality of home education.

8. Homeschoolers obtain 72 points more (out of 1600) than the national average on the SAT.

According to homeschoolers in college statistics, students educated at home show better results on college entrance tests. More precisely, they scored 72 points more on the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) than the national average. Similarly, they obtained 22.8 out of 36 points on the American College Test (ACT), compared to the national average of 21 points.

9. Students educated at home graduate from a college at a 66.7% rate.

Homeschoolers show considerable homeschool success rates. The University of St. Thomas conducted a study that revealed that homeschoolers graduate from a college at a nearly 10% higher rate than their peers who finished regular public high school (57.5%). The study also found that homeschoolers applied to college with an average of 26.5 composite ACT, compared to students from regular schools who had a 25 composite. Besides, homeschooled students continually earned a greater GPA compared to other students.

What Education Level Do Homeschooling Parents Have?

Homeschool parents highest education level. Homeschooling facts and statistics. #homeschoolfacts #homeschoolstatistics

Homeschooling statistics on the proportion of different ethnicities of people who engage in home education show white people are, by far, the biggest proportion of homeschoolers in America.

Ethnic Makeup of Homeschoolers in the United States. Homeschooling Facts and Statistics Graph. #homeschoolingfacts #homeschoolingstatistics #ethnicity

Further, about 40% of the parents gave as a reason that they want to “give the child more instruction on African American/black culture and history” and 20% said another reason they chose homeschooling is that they “desire to avoid racism in public schools.”(Ray 2017, p. 609).

…while African American homeschooling practices vary widely based on parents’ teaching and learning philosophies and ultimate objective, a common tendency is the implementation of a curriculum inclusive of African/African American history and culture. (Ama Mazama, 2015)

Is homeschooling a good choice? Familiarize yourself with homeschooling facts and statistics on the matter. #homeschoolingfacts #homeschoolingstatistics #2017 #2018 #2019

Homeschooled Black Children Scored Better than Public School Black Children

He found these black homeschoolers performed better than their black public school peers and black homeschoolers also scored the same or higher than all ethnicities in public school.

Perhaps this isn’t surprising considering children learn much better when they have one-on-one tutors as opposed to high student to teacher ratios. They also learn better if they don’t have to deal with a host of other influences that eat away their mental strength throughout the day (peer pressure, racism, exhaustion and so on).


18 inspiring back-to-school quotes to live by

55+ Inspirational School Quotes for Every Student

From the first day of school to the last, your education is a major part of your life. And, trying to sum up all the hard work and fun times can be a little tricky. Whether you’re looking for the perfect graduation caption or trying to figure out what to write in a yearbook , the following school quotes will help you find the right words. Pick your favorite below, or use them as inspiration to write your own message. With Shutterfly, your kid’s back to school journey will be special because when you personalize supplies with their name, photo, cool graphics, and messages to motivate them.

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Happy back to school quotes

After my ski jumping career finished, I went back to school to study law, and now I travel between five to 20 times a year doing after-dinner speaking, motivational talks, appearances, openings, TV and radio shows.

I have always had school sickness, as others have seasickness. I cried when it was time to go back to school long after I was old enough to be ashamed of such behavior. - Jacques Derrida

I came to the Philippines to follow my father who came here earlier, looking for a better life. I helped my father in our sari-sari store. I also asked him if I could go back to school so I could learn English and improve myself.

That’s what the Affordable Care Act is all about. It’s about filling the gaps in employer-based care so that when we lose a job, or go back to school, or start that new business, we’ll still have coverage.

I have had this longstanding interest in going back to school to get a Ph.D. in art history. I was especially interested in exploring this idea of the ecstatic impulse in an artist.

I’m already popular in my city. I was just trying to get rich. Man, I’m not gonna lie to you; I didn’t really want to go back to school. I mean, my family was mad about that. Because, you know, you tell your family you want to rap, and they look at you like you’re crazy.

My father, a math professor in Hong Kong, worked as an electrical engineer here. My mother was an art teacher, but once we came to the United States, she went back to school and became certified as a special-education teacher.

I’m not a big fan of Sundays, but now that my life is kind of chaotic, structure-wise, I don’t really notice it’s Sunday most of the time. But I used to associate it – when I was in school – to ‘back to school on Monday,’ so I didn’t like that day.

The first day back to school, you never want to wear your best outfit. You’re setting the bar too high for yourself! Then the rest of the school year, you’ll feel so much pressure! Wear something cute, but save your best outfit for a day when no one expects it.

My sister is a good story of resiliency. She had a full ride at UC Davis, but she left school to go to the Philippines – and then she decided to go back to school in her 40s, which surprised me. She went to UC Berkeley, and I think she was one of two African Americans in her class at Haas. She’s really impressive.

The first thing I tried to write was a novel, when I took that time off in grad school. Then I didn’t finish it. I went back to school, and then I started writing nonfiction kind of by accident.

I dedicated most of my life to basketball, and that was my plan until my junior year of college when I got ill and was bed-ridden for eight months. In those months, I wanted to be productive, and I taught myself how to produce music on my computer. When I went back to school, I started taking all my classes in music and DJing a lot.

On the sets, Bharathirajaa would treat me like an adult even though I was just 16. One day, he slapped me. I was taken aback. I cried and went back to school. Then, he called me and said, ‘You are like my daughter. Come back.’

I’ve wrestled my whole life, and when I got done with college, I went back to school to become a firefighter. I liked MMA, but I didn’t really know if I wanted to get punched in the face!

I had a heartbreaking experience when I was 9. I always wanted to be a guard. The most wonderful girl in the world was a guard. When I got polio and then went back to school, they made me a guard. A teacher took away my guard button.

I allowed myself to think if I could be doing anything in the world, what would I be doing? And what came to mind is I’d be traveling a little bit, I’d be going to classes and I’d be going back to school.

If you’re under 26, you can stay on your parents’ plan. You can go back to school or get extra training without fear of a health catastrophe bankrupting your family. Over three million previously uninsured young adults are now on their parents’ plans.

I’m quite contrary. If people agree on something, I tend to gravitate the other way by my nature. I don’t like to be told what to do. I think it goes back to school. I like to do things I want to do and I really don’t like doing what I don’t want to do.

I’ve made a good amount of money. I’m very happy that I can now support my theatre company and support friends and family, and I’m ready to maybe go back to school and change careers.

In theory, I always think I should totally go back to school, because I don’t want to start sinking slowly. I want to learn, blah blah blah. Then I think about actually going and sitting in classes and, man, it sounds terrible.

I knew I wanted to pursue a career in the theater the minute I graduated from college having not pursued it! So I went back to school and got a degree in music and began working in musical theater.


Successful Learning: How To Self Study Japanese Alone.

Woman pointing at a computer screen in front of another woman

How to Learn More Effectively

Verywell Mind articles are reviewed by board-certified physicians and mental healthcare professionals. Medical Reviewers confirm the content is thorough and accurate, reflecting the latest evidence-based research. Content is reviewed before publication and upon substantial updates. Learn more.

Amy Morin, LCSW, is the Editor-in-Chief of Verywell Mind. She’s also a psychotherapist, the author of the bestselling book “13 Things Mentally Strong People Don’t Do,” and the host of The Verywell Mind Podcast.

Knowing the most effective strategies for how to learn can help you maximize your efforts when you are trying to learn new ideas, concepts, and skills. If you are like many people, your time is limited, so it is important to get the most educational value out of the time you have.

Speed of learning is not the only important factor, however. It is important to be able to accurately remember the information that you learn, recall it at a later time, and use it effectively in a wide variety of situations.

Knowing how to learn well is not something that happens overnight, but putting a few of these learning techniques into daily practice can help you get more out of your study time.

3) Remember, consistency is important.

Many reasons. They get bored. Life gets busy and they stop. Or, they don’t see progress. Or, they get distracted. Excuse #4. Excuse #5. Whatever. These small reasons are not important. But the biggest reason they fail is that they don’t understand consistency.

Learning Janese Guide: Linguajunkie

Some people were lucky to develop consistency without thinking about it. This is the case with those that start young. For example, when parents that force their kids to learn piano. The kids keep it at because that’s all they know and they can easily continue. They don’t have to think about consistency. They were raised on it.

See, the student was looking for something “deeper” – that would shake his mind and stir his soul. Intellectual masturbation without any actual results. This is the mistake most learners make. This is the mistake people make when reading self-help books. We’re all looking for some wise, inspirational statement. And once we stumble upon and read this magical statement… it will shake us to the core. Matrix code will drop down all around us. Our mind will suddenly become clear. Our vision will become 20/20. Our acne will clear up. Our sense of smell will become stronger… and we will be different.

See, instead of practicing the damn thing, people go to read about the damn thing. Just like learning Japanese, same goes for acting classes, dancing classes, calligraphy classes, writing classes, practicing sports, learning marketing, learning cooking, or anything….

So, to be consistent, you must practice being consistent. You must DO. You must make a habit of doing it every day or every 5 days out of the week. If you’re not actually doing the studying, the speaking practice, and the reviewing…. you’re never going to get it.


Famous Quotes on Writing

writing quotes-3

“It’s none of their business that you have to learn how to write. Let them think you were born that way.” ~ Ernest Hemingway

“If you want to be a writer, you must do two things above all others: read a lot and write a lot.” ~ Stephen King

“There is no greater agony than bearing an untold story inside you.” ~ Maya Angelou

“I love deadlines. I love the whooshing noise they make as they go by.” ~ Douglas Adams, The Salmon of Doubt

“A writer is working when he’s staring out of the window.” ~ Burton Rascoe

“Just write every day of your life. Read intensely. Then see what happens. Most of my friends who are put on that diet have very pleasant careers.” ~ Ray Bradbury

“Close the door. Write with no one looking over your shoulder. Don’t try to figure out what other people want to hear from you; figure out what you have to say. It’s the one and only thing you have to offer.” ~ Barbara Kingsolver

“The English language is an arsenal of weapons. If you are going to brandish them without checking to see whether or not they are loaded, you must expect to have them explode in your face from time to time.” ~ Stephen Fry

“If my doctor told me I had only six minutes to live, I wouldn’t brood. I’d type a little faster.” ~ Isaac Asimov

“The scariest moment is always just before you start. After that, things can only get better.” ~ Stephen King

“And by the way, everything in life is writable about if you have the outgoing guts to do it, and the imagination to improvise. The worst enemy to creativity is self-doubt.” ~ Sylvia Plath

“The best time to plan a book is while you’re doing the dishes.” ~ Agatha Christie

“There are three rules for writing the novel. Unfortunately, no one knows what they are.” ~ W. Somerset Maugham

“[As a writer] you have to have the three D’s: drive, discipline and desire. If you’re missing any one of those three, you can have all the talent in the world, but it’s going to be really hard to get anything done.” ~ Nora Roberts

“I try to write a certain amount each day, five days a week. A rule sometimes broken is better than no rule.” ~ Herman Wouk

72 of the Best Quotes About Writing

For those days when the well is feeling dry and a tad echo-y, I keep a running list of my favorite quotes—things I’ve read, things I’ve edited, things I’ve found in the WD archives, things people have said to me in interviews.

A couple of years ago, I posted a portion of this list on my old WD blog (around the same time we ran a great quote feature on 90 tips from bestselling authors in the magazine). Recently, someone asked if I was still collecting quotes.

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“The road to hell is paved with adverbs.”
—Stephen King

“Who wants to become a writer? And why? Because it’s the answer to everything. … It’s the streaming reason for living. To note, to pin down, to build up, to create, to be astonished at nothing, to cherish the oddities, to let nothing go down the drain, to make something, to make a great flower out of life, even if it’s a cactus.”
—Enid Bagnold

“Cheat your landlord if you can and must, but do not try to shortchange the Muse. It cannot be done. You can’t fake quality any more than you can fake a good meal.”
—William S. Burroughs

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“It ain’t whatcha write, it’s the way atcha write it.”
—Jack Kerouac, WD

“Not a wasted word. This has been a main point to my literary thinking all my life.”
—Hunter S. Thompson

“When I sit down to write a book, I do not say to myself, ‘I am going to produce a work of art.’ I write it because there is some lie that I want to expose, some fact to which I want to draw attention, and my initial concern is to get a hearing.”
—George Orwell

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“I would advise anyone who aspires to a writing career that before developing his talent he would be wise to develop a thick hide.”
—Harper Lee, WD

“I think the deeper you go into questions, the deeper or more interesting the questions get. And I think that’s the job of art.”
—Andre Dubus III, WD (this quote is from an interview with Dubus in our July/August 2012 issue)

“Geniuses can be scintillating and geniuses can be somber, but it’s that inescapable sorrowful depth that shines through—originality.”
—Jack Kerouac, WD

“People say, ‘What advice do you have for people who want to be writers?’ I say, they don’t really need advice, they know they want to be writers, and they’re gonna do it. Those people who know that they really want to do this and are cut out for it, they know it.”
—R.L. Stine, WD (this quote is from an interview with Stine that ran in our November/December 2011 issue)

“I don’t need an alarm clock. My ideas wake me.”
—Ray Bradbury, WD

“Just write every day of your life. Read intensely. Then see what happens. Most of my friends who are put on that diet have very pleasant careers.”
—Ray Bradbury, WD

“Let the world burn through you. Throw the prism light, white hot, on paper.”
—Ray Bradbury, WD

“Remember: Plot is no more than footprints left in the snow after your characters have run by on their way to incredible destinations.”
—Ray Bradbury, WD

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Tell us about your book, and we’ll give you a writing playlist

80. “When your story is ready for a rewrite, cut it to the bone. Get rid of every ounce of excess fat. This is going to hurt; revising a story down to the bare essentials is always a little like murdering children, but it must be done.” — Stephen King

81. “The best advice on writing was given to me by my first editor, Michael Korda, of Simon and Schuster, while writing my first book. ‘Finish your first draft and then we’ll talk,’ he said. It took me a long time to realize how good the advice was. Even if you write it wrong, write and finish your first draft. Only then, when you have a flawed whole, do you know what you have to fix.” — Dominick Dunne

92. “I would write a book, or a short story, at least three times — once to understand it, the second time to improve the prose, and a third to compel it to say what it still must say. Somewhere I put it this way: first drafts are for learning what one’s fiction wants him to say. Revision works with that knowledge to enlarge and enhance an idea, to reform it. Revision is one of the exquisite pleasures of writing.” — Bernard Malamud

writing quotes-6

How many writers does it take to screw in a light bulb? “But why do we have to CHANGE it?” Luckily, there are more ways to identify a born writer than just that model response, as these writing quotes show.

98. “People say, ‘What advice do you have for people who want to be writers?’ I say, they don’t really need advice, they know they want to be writers, and they’re gonna do it. Those people who know that they really want to do this and are cut out for it, they know it.” — R.L. Stine

102. “I go out to my little office, where I’ve got a manuscript, and the last page I was happy with is on top. I read that, and it’s like getting on a taxiway. I’m able to go through and revise it and put myself — click — back into that world.” — Stephen King

104. “Each writer is born with a repertory company in his head. Shakespeare has perhaps 20 players. I have 10 or so, and that’s a lot. As you get older, you become more skillful at casting them.” — Gore Vidal

108. “Many people hear voices when no one is there. Some of them are called mad and are shut up in rooms where they stare at the walls all day. Others are called writers and they do pretty much the same thing.” — Margaret Chittenden

From cavemen to our modern day in the 21st-century, we have written our joys and sorrows throughout history. What compels us to write? Here’s what some of the most beloved writers we know have to say.

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As any writer knows, there are no actual “rules” in this craft. That said, these writing quotes reveal some famous principles in writing that won’t let you down.

135. “The main rule of writing is that if you do it with enough assurance and confidence, you’re allowed to do whatever you like. (That may be a rule for life as well as for writing. But it’s definitely true for writing.) So write your story as it needs to be written. Write it ­honestly, and tell it as best you can. I’m not sure that there are any other rules. Not ones that matter.” — Neil Gaiman

136. “Exercise the writing muscle every day, even if it is only a letter, notes, a title list, a character sketch, a journal entry. Writers are like dancers, like athletes. Without that exercise, the muscles seize up.” — Jane Yolen

138. “My aim in constructing sentences is to make the sentence utterly easy to understand, writing what I call transparent prose. I’ve failed dreadfully if you have to read a sentence twice to figure out what I meant.” — Ken Follett

139. “And one of [the things you learn as you get older] is, you really need less… My model for this is late Beethoven. He moves so strangely and quite suddenly sometimes from place to place in his music, in the late quartets. He knows where he’s going and he just doesn’t want to waste all that time getting there… One is aware of this as one gets older. You can’t waste time.” — Ursula K. Le Guin

140. “Part 1. I notice that you use plain, simple language, short words and brief sentences. That is the way to write English — it is the modern way and the best way. Stick to it; don’t let fluff and flowers and verbosity creep in.

Part 2. When you catch an adjective, kill it. No, I don’t mean utterly, but kill most of them – then the rest will be valuable. They weaken when they are close together. They give strength when they are wide apart.

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What Is Symbolism? Definition and Examples

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Affect is usually a verb that means “to create a change” in something, while effect is usually a noun that describes “a change that is caused” by something. In other words, an affect produces an effect.

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Essay Structure

The 5 Most Commonly Taught Writing Styles

By placing a significantly higher emphasis on a variety of writing types, we can help address the challenges regarding student writing proficiency. This is especially important in the middle school years, when students are transitioning from the foundational skills they learned in elementary school to the deeper levels of thinking required in high school and beyond.

If you have a teaching degree, it’s likely you’ve already learned about or taught many of the following types of writing styles. Whether you’re familiar with all of them or need to brush up on several, there are guaranteed to be new approaches with which you’re not yet familiar. That’s the goal of this post: to give you the tools you need to maximize your students’ learning experience, writing skills and persuasive power.

The most common types of writing styles differ from their intended purpose to their structure to the level of emotional appeal for which they call. Understanding how each of these categories contributes to each type of writing will help you teach students to express themselves more proficiently, as well as reach higher levels of proficiency on state and national tests.

We Are Teachers defines narrative writing as “writing that is characterized by a main character in a setting who engages with a problem or event in a significant way. As writing instruction goes, narrative writing encompasses a lot: author’s purpose, tone, voice, structure, in addition to teaching sentence structure, organization, and word choice.”

You can assign students a wide variety of narrative writing assignments, from personal narrative to fiction to “fan fiction,” or stories that use main characters from books students love. For instance, a student could write a short story about one of Harry Potter’s untold side adventures.

Teaching students to weave all of these elements together will take time, which is why each lesson should cover no more than one of the above. As students check off each item, they can incorporate it with the ones above. Eventually, the result will be a well-fleshed-out story they can be proud to share with the class and their family.

Parts of an Essay

To give your essay a good introduction, you want to make it broad, but be careful not to go too broad. Also, this is the part in which you should share some background information related to the topic. However, you want to be careful not to start your argument just yet. Towards the end of your introduction, drop a thesis statement . Some writers also prefer throwing their thesis in the last sentence, but that relies greatly on your style of writing.

The body is the term used to refer to the paragraphs that come after the introduction but before the conclusion. A typical essay should feature multiple body paragraphs. However, the overall length of the body of your essay is determined by the number of ideas you have to share. The details you use to back up your thoughts also have an impact on the overall length of the body. Make sure that you present one idea after the other, and then support them with substantial facts to convince your readers.

Your conclusion might look a bit similar to the introductory paragraph. In this section, make sure to restate your thesis because your readers might have lost it somewhere while reading the body. Also, in the conclusion, you need to create a summary of the main points your essay touches. Do not forget to remind the readers of what you think about the entire subject in discussion.

Problem and Solution Questions

Image: IELTS-Task-2-Structures-4

Essay Structure

Student Sample Answer

Learners are becoming ever more dependent on technology, such as the Internet and mobile devices. This essay believes the main problems associated with dependence on computers is the lack of original thought and copying original work from others and suggests critical thinking classes and writing analysis software as the most viable solutions.

The principal problems with over-reliance on technology are people not being able to think for themselves and plagiarism. With access to so much information, students often rely on other people’s opinions instead of forming their own. As well as this, they often use search engines to answer a question and simply copy the text from a website, rather than thinking about the question. This practice is not only prohibited in schools and universities but also stunts a student’s intellectual development because they will never truly think for themselves, which is what university is supposed to really be for. For example, many teachers complain that students copy web pages straight from Wikipedia word for word rather than giving a reasoned answer to their questions.

Solutions to these worrying problems are special classes to focus on critical thinking and teachers using anti-plagiarism software to detect copying. If teachers create situations where students have to infer meaning and express opinions based on a small amount of information, this will ensure that students have an opportunity to develop these skills. Also, if students know that their assignments are being checked for plagiarism, this will be enough to deter them from doing so. For instance, many universities already use this kind of software to scan course work for plagiarism and it could be extended to include all homework, by learners in both secondary and tertiary education.

In conclusion, the main problems with overuse of technology in education are the lack of original thought and plagiarism and these can be solved through special classes that teach students analytical skills and the use of plagiarism detection software.

Two-Part Questions

Image: IELTS-Essay-Structures-5

Essay Structure

Student Sample Answer

As the majority of adults spend most of their time at work, being content with your career is a crucial part of a person’s health and happiness. This essay will first suggest fair pay as a key element leading to job satisfaction and it will then state that it is not very likely that everyone can be happy with their job.

The most important thing that leads to someone being satisfied at work is being compensated fairly. If those more senior than you respect you as a person and the job you are doing then you feel like you are valued. A fair salary and benefits are important marks of respect and if you feel you are being underpaid you will either resent your bosses or look for another job. These two factors came top of a recent job satisfaction survey conducted by, that found that 72% of people were pleased with their current role if their superiors regularly told them they were appreciated.

With regards to the question of happiness for all workers, I think this is and always will be highly unlikely. The vast majority of people fail to reach their goals and end up working in a post they don’t really care about in return for a salary. This money is just enough to pay their living expenses which often means they are trapped in a cycle of disenchantment. For example, The Times recently reported that 89% of office workers would leave their jobs if they did not need the money.

In conclusion, being satisfied with your trade or profession is an important part of one’s well-being and respect from one’s colleagues and fair pay can improve your level of happiness, however, job satisfaction of all workers is an unrealistic prospect.

Nobody can give you a Task 2 IELTS structure that guarantees you a high score. You score is dependent on how good your grammar and vocabulary is and how well you answer the question. A good structure will help you answer the question to some extent and boost your score for coherence and cohesion, but you must use relevant ideas and use these ideas well to answer the question.